Q1. In your country/community, do you have any policies that guide the production and use of CIS?
The two recent actions plans, namely national adaptation plan and especially NATIONAL ACTIONS PLANS/FRAMEWORK for CLIMATE SERVICES can be considered as a good start point in setting a standard guideline. Some countries including Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire have already published their National Climate Services Framework (http://www.wmo.int/gfcs/national-action-plans). However, in practices much need to be done to regulate the services, for example “who should do what”? How to increase capacities and roles of the national universities or research institutes? A standard community guide for CIS?
a.What are the public policy issues, interventions that you think need to be established or strengthened
A LEGISLATION to boost the integration of CIS into national policies and development strategies; but also into projects (eg. NGOs in water and sanitation sectors) to avoid undermining existing outcomes or impacts from other projects.
NATIONAL and LOCAL CIS INVESTIMENT PLAN. Each country should set a local investment plan and strategy to fund CIS In addition to donors' funds or adaptation funds. But this depends partially in evidences (see below).
A NATIONAL PLAN is good however LOCAL PLAN for CIS should be also more helpful. This can help focus on local issues and full integrating the beneficiary interests through taking account local hazards, needs, perceptions, culture (ex. dietary habits, …) and capacities into local development plans and strategies (ex. for municipalities). This should be based on local hydro-meteorological offices. In addition this can foster mainstreaming climate services at all level and developing a culture of climate services based climate resilience;
A SET OF STANDARD INDICATORS to assess and evaluate all initiatives (projects, programmes) on the same criteria basis. These indictors should take into account the different pillars of the Sustainable Development –Social, Economic and Environmental- and different sectors for example those already identified by GFCS (Food Security, Water, Health, Disaster Risk Reduction, Energy). These can be disaggregated on the local level and then any projects can be evaluated following the region of intervention (on the same standard basis). These global standard of indicators should be adapted with regard to the country development priorities and then avoid maladaptation. One of the key benefits can be that the proposals or the project managers should pay much attention as the evaluation is not only about their project-related indicators. Government can get means to challenge or question organisations which actions conducted to maladaptation. (on this issue about an standard tool that can feed climate resilience, this paper can help understand much more although it is not specifically about climate services but agri water resilience to climate – it included indicators and an integrated indice and a discussion that can help https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3041057).
Q2. What are the major challenges in reaching development planners / policy makers?
EVIDENCES. Impacts on climate services into development at all level; For example in changing social status, and how climate services can contributing to the national financial budget (for access to climate funds) and how CIS save the budget.
In addition, it will be very helpful to show how CIS can contribute to underpin or undermine the political reputation of politicians, especially the President and his government and also the local elected people (mayor, etc). Because different government are more attentive about those that can impeach them for next election;
From the experience, in Africa, local governments are more engaged in CIS projects when they expected to get money more than the actions/outcomes of the projects themselves. Research can play an important role here.
MORE RESOURCES (Fundings) . Available resources is a key in boosting and adaptaion of climate initiatives. If a specific fund for CIS is avalable, that can help in reaching planners and policy makers. These funds can help in setting the local investiment plan.
(IN-DEPTH) RESEARCH on CIS, this should be the role of Universities and national research centers. On this end there is a need to enhance technical and human capacities in national universities or research center.
CAPACITY BUILDING in CIS. National plans for CIS try to address this issue in terms of planning (eg of Burkina Faso's CNSC). However, most of them are mostly oriented to MetOffice capacity building. Research institutes are a key role to play in CIS in Africa and NGOs as well.
A veritable LEADERSHIP is needed, the leadership can go under an existing government organisation (example MetOffice) but in this case, its should be needs to change their legal status. For example in Burkina Faso, MetOffice moved from General National Meteorological Directory to National Meteorological Agency to get “more power”.